WORK AND PROFESSIONAL GROUPS
The construction of high-performance building: What organizational changes for social housing organisations?
Farid ABACHI (Social Union for Housing)
Since Palulos to recent legislation (Grenelle Environment, law project on energy transition), subject to successive obligations relative to thermal regulations and in integrating approaches conducted in the framework of the policies of the city (DSQ, HVS, PNRU …) the social housing organisations led rehabilitation operations of their heritage, aimed to a significant improvement in energy and environmental performance.
However, the establishment of the « high performance building » was partly sustained by the social housing organisations, to the extent that changes in performance was called by that regulation (lowering successive of energy consumption maximum permitted), and no meet the needs and expectations of tenants – though at the same time, social housing organisations have engaged in leasehold cost control measures and energy consumption, having noted the increasing difficulties of tenants to pay for their bill.
If this regulatory and economic input was initially impacted the project ownership work (for formulating levels and requirements of performance to achieve and by defining new relationships with the other actors of the building), it has extended gradually to other jobs (heritage management, rental management and social management), in particular by:
- The selection of equipment to be installed, whose the expansion and increasing complexity required a growing competence by of employees and a reconfiguration of the maintenance requirements for the achievement of expected returns and maintaining ;
- The definition of services to be included in a social rental offer and the modalities of their control;
- The gradual taking in account of the square of the tenants (actions of accompanying and awareness to control energy demand devices).
This contribution propose to account for construction terms of the category « buildings of high energy performance and low consumption » in social housing, through the analysis of relations between actors (internal services, external stakeholders, tenant groups …) of their respective positioning, of the developments of skills and organizational configurations in place within the social housing organisations for the realization of experimental projects (passive buildings, positive energy buildings, carbon imprint …) at light of future goals and an expected regulatory, social and societal (« responsible building » 2020 …).
KEY WORDS: social housing, energy performance, consumption management, organisations, businesses.
Between logical design and occupation: « intermediate actors » of performing commercial buildings.
Sarah THIRIOT (University of Grenoble/PACTE ; EDF/R&D/GRETS)
French office buildings are targeted by a set of policy tools (thermal regulation, energy performance contracting, green lease) to help reduce energy consumption. These tools generate complex mutations that affect investors and professionals from building construction as well as occupants. Given the difficulties in achieving the goals of energy efficiency, operational actors (Real Estate Company, project manager, contractors, etc.) seek to develop their skills and organization of real estate projects during phases of design and of construction. But about occupancy, and its overconsumption of energy, it is the commonly-held figure of « occupant » which is answered as a factor of unpredictability and irrational disruption facing the technical approach of the building.
Using the notion of « intermediary actors », this communication proposes to highlight the professionals involved in occupancy of office building: it is the case of technical managers who perform maintenance and space planners. These two kind of works, are not institutionalized in the organizational structure of design. However, these works deeply shape the daily working environment of the occupants (adjustment of heating and ventilation for instance). Changes in favor of actual performance (CPE) and certifications about efficiency during occupancy (BREEAM-In-Use, HQE Exploitation) also seem to advocate for a revaluation of these occupational groups.
Behind the issues normally studied through the prism of occupants, such as comfort, the paper shows the importance of making a shift to an organizational approach of the energy efficiency project thanks to these little studied professionals. They fully appear as intermediate actors at the interface between different logics of users of the building (builder, architect, real estate company, occupant) and different organizational logic (design, use), which may be in tension. This perspective opens a way to understand the issues that these activities pose to the achievement of a real performance and to the way for occupants to live in energy efficient office buildings.
This work is based on a qualitative study of several office buildings (observations and interviews). It provides an analysis of the links between design, maintenance and occupation in understanding the occupation of an energy efficient building.
KEY WORDS :Energy efficiency, office building, division of work, intermediate players.