Energy issues, and more precisely the actions to take and the measures to put into place concerning energy policies and the preservation of the natural resources of territories, which are at the heart of numerous debates, give rise to controversies, sometimes even conflicts between the protagonists. Citizens are more and more numerous to mobilize and get involved in the discussions, coming together in order to orient certain decisions.

What is the effective weight of these militant collectives, more or less structured, compared to the actors of the merchant system (actors in the economic world, business people, lobbyists…), to the experts and political actors, in the process of socio-energetic change? Next to “ecological” values, what are those values which support today the engagement of individuals in the debates around energy transitions? In what way and in what conditions can those who support these associations enroll individuals who do not necessarily master the issues? How do the created groups organize themselves in order to strengthen their power for collective action (empowerment), and to what point do these actions defend the general interest? What is the role of coordination in these steps? In a perspective of balance of power, in certain cases of resistance or of opposition clearly claimed and shown, how do these collectives makes themselves sufficiently heard so that the decision makers cannot do otherwise but to associate them in the decision process? And in this case, what kind of evaluation to make about the ways of elaborating public policy which is supported by this participation by citizens (National Debate on Energy Transition for example)? We may equally ask the question of the pertinent level of collective action and of mobilization, because the types of associations mobilized around energy issues are varied, between the association which works to defend the natural heritage or of biodiversity at the local level and the national association which wishes to weigh on policy orientations and the issues as ways to provoke divergent actions. As such, the sociology of social movements can be called on to analyze the issues of mobilizations around energy transitions. We are interested equally here in collective actions in the center of professional sectors more directly impacted by energy orientations. According to what modalities are professionals able to regroup to defend common interests, and how do they articulate them with the objectives of public policy? Across the board, the question of links to establish between the debates on energy transition, scientific steps, economic interests and citizen engagements is asked. Through these questions, are included, those, larger, of the democratic debate and of the risks, seen or unseen, of the “confiscation” of this debate.

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