METHODOLOGY, PROSPECTIVE, REFLEXIVITY
Lighting practices of users in terms of energy consumption in an innovative by setting up a system co-design technology context: the case of Ecofamilies project.
Franck DEBOS ( Nice Sophia Antipolis University-IUT /I3M)
The purpose of this paper is to show how a research centered on an iterative negotiation allows greater suitability of a digital device and managerial vision of their designers with user expectations. These comments will be illustrated by the presentation of Ecofamilies project was to prototype and test, through a process of co-design, an innovative technology solution to encourage responsible environmental behavior among families in terms of energy expenditure. In addition to the participatory design workshops that are at the center of the latter was reinforced by:
- An online survey to establish a detailed profile of volunteer families.
- A blog creates a space of interaction between families and the project team.
- A documentary film, putting into perspective the different postures of the experimental families and allowing continuity in trade.
The main purpose of this approach to identify a typology of families based on their experimentation eco responsible involvement and techie but also develop a socio-technical device combining a co-design approach to digital tools sensitivity goal.
It is for actors to engage in a process of renewal of their uses, learn from each other, its own practices and those from the technology solution chosen.
KEY WORDS: Digital Device, Co-design, eco responsibility, energy expenditure, Users.
Réhabilitation logements sociaux en site occupé : démarche projet pour un résultat alliant satisfaction locataires et performance énergétique.
En collaboration avec l’Université de La Rochelle (Plateforme TIPEE), l’agence RCP design global, dans le cadre de son activité de concepteur, accompagne le projet RUPELLA-REHA dans une approche anthropocentrée, au service de l’exploitant et en collaboration avec un consortium d’industriels pour les réhabilitations de 3 bâtiments sociaux rochelais (1954 / 1966 / 1974) prenant en considération les habitants dans un objectif de performances énergétiques et de satisfaction pérenne.
Dans le cadre de ce projet collaboratif, l’agence a étudié la perception des locataires en termes de confort et d’attentes pour les futurs travaux afin de les retranscrire en préconisations de conception. L’intervention de l’agence a également pour mission d’expliquer les pistes de travail, d’accompagner les utilisateurs tout au long du projet, de sensibiliser aux solutions techniques envisagées et d’aider le consortium dans ses choix techniques et budgétaires. Cette étude participe à la satisfaction générale et à l’acceptation des travaux par les occupants.
MOTS CLÉS : perception, réhabilitation énergétique, occupant, préconisations, usage.
« BBC for all » – a collaborative approach to design efficient buildings.
Aware of the need to consider the energy factor in its strategies of social and environmental development, Rennes Métropole has initiated in 2009 the project “BBC pour tous.” The aim is to support the generalization of buildings with low energy consumption (BBC), balancing performance, cost and architectural quality, not to forget the objective of solidarity and household solvency.
The strategy is based on the observation that more than technical solutions, the methods could help us to re-examine the generalization of this standard. It deals with introducing new ways of working between the stakeholders in the construction chain, based on the principle of “integrated design process”.
The prevailing approach today is based on a segmentation of the construction chain, which leads to a stacking of constraints and costs. In contrast, a stronger integration inside the teams from the start to the end of the project (community developer, planner, project management, architect, construction firm, engineers and users) promotes the inclusion of upstream energy issues, as well as cost control while aiming quality.
In this context Wigwam applied the method of Integrated Design Process on 9 projects by leading and facilitating design workshops. The prize “Innovative Project” Fimbacte 2010 was awarded to this project.
KEY WORDS: integrated design, collaborative workshops, collective intelligence, energy performance, innovation.
Occupants accompaniment of 5 efficient buildings.
Ludovic GICQUEL (Vie to B Society)
This experience takes place within the european project CABEE. Vie to B had to lead the efficient building use accompaniment of 5 public buildings (school, administration, social housing, medical house), in order to lower the energy consumption. After 2 days of training / workshop on change and accompaniment, 25 meetings and workshop have been done in 2014. This experience inspired us on several subjects / domains :
Methodology : advantages to be two (social & technical) to perform the accompaniment; meetings animation mode (balanced, dynamic) and places are very important.
Bottom-up communication : advantages of stake holders participation about building use; focus on 2 workshops.
What’s the problem ? Impossibility to evaluate if real energetic consumption are ok or not, (theoretical consumption, problem of measures). Is the building occupant responsible of high consumption ? Technical, political and organizational problems !
Accompaniment result : Mirror effect of the diagnostic : better conscience of use problems, better understanding, new operational way of working on this subject. Replication potential.
Necessary changes : Make the “expert of use” participate during building conception. Better organize the “building-occupant” relation during the building reception. Be helped to perform the occupants accompaniment.
New look on building-occupant relation : Building should be much more ergonomic ! It’s necessary to live, experiment, to build a new relation with the building.
KEY WORDS: occupants accompaniment, bottom-up communication, expert of use.
Home energy retrofits in Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur : from the experimentation Rénover + to the call for interest of ADEME of the creation of local EE platforms.
Viviane HAMON (Viviane Hamon Conseil)
During the 1rst international days of the sociology of energy, our communication focused on the presentation of an experimentation to come of two home energy retrofitting platforms in region PACA (Rénover + à Fréjus and Rénover + en Pays dignois : http://www.renover-plus-a-frejus.energissime.fr/). This experimentation, which lasted two years, is presently coming to an end, while ADEME has just launched a call for interest for the generalization of such platforms.
The evaluation of those two local experimentations allows to assess the role of local authorities, and of their public partners, in the field-coordination aiming at boosting the market (households’ demand) and the private sector (artisans’ offers).
Capitalizing on this evaluation, and while eleven territories have declared their interest in PACA, the Region, ADEME and DREAL have developed a doctrine regarding the home energy retrofitting platforms which differs quite drastically from the underlying paradigm of the national call for interest which is based on “a personalized neutral independent accompaniment of households”.
The position which has been taken in PACA proposes : a positioning based mainly on “embedded works” with an additional focus on energy efficiency ; the activation of the market involving all the public and private actors in a position to convince households to take action and to prescribe energy efficiency ; a segmented approach of the market (households and artisans) inducing a differentiation strategy with services offers adapted to each target ; a necessary field coordination based on human resources rather than more money incentives ; a communication avoiding messages based on guilt and/or money savings.
On this basis, a methodological framework has been proposed to the candidates to help them develop their detailed project. Because they are strongly encouraged to reach financial autonomy, the candidate territories must assess the existence of a market, its interest for the services which are offered and its willing to pay for them (households, artisans and other partners). Thus, this methodological framework is based on the principles of strategic and operational marketing (targeting, positioning, services offer, business plan), which represents a totally new approach for local authorities which are used to shape their public policies according to an offer rather than demand point of view.
The support, which will be given to the candidates, aims at favourizing this necessary cultural (r)-evolution and to plan the actions which may be mutualised at a regional level, while enabling each territory to shape its own project according to local characteristics.
KEY WORDS: energy retrofits, retrofits platforms, demand, artisans, public policies.
A revolution in the world of energy experts.
Among the numerous actors in the building’s industry, engineers in energetics have traditionally funded their practice on a series of principles or hypothesis which the massive development of high performance buildings question today. Among these grounding elements, we can mention :
- The exclusion of the typical human uncertainty from calculation processes ;
- The detachment from the building considered as a technical object, in a typical newtonian scientific approach ;
- A careful attention to the technical details, often leaving the « big picture » aside.
- The belief in a « perfectly achieved » building at the end of the construction process.
These elements, among others, witness in fact a real difficulty in introducing the living reality of the world into technical practices.
This is especially the case :
- During conception phases, during which the integration of the human factor (non-typical uses, probable drifts, etc.) should require the designer to project himself, as a human being, into the designed building ;
- During the first years of use, during which life takes back its rights on a technical object, which was until now only theoretical. Reaching a real performance require peculiar capacities to listen to the user’s feedback. These capacities are still uncommon, if not unthought.
Incub’, as a collaborative design office specialized on energy soberness and efficiency, has constantly adjusted its practices, through the research of a more humanistic expertise, center on the human being’s richness. This renewed practice is altogether grounded on a very acute technical expertise, a critical and refreshing approach about calculation tools and on more unusual elements in the frame of a design office (training in non violent communication, in participatory governance, techniques from the entertainment industry, etc.). We systematically prefer low-tech solutions, helping each user to re-appropriate its environment, in opposition to high-tech approaches, extolling soberness through the use of digital pads.
This more humanistic version of the energetic designer’s art both nourishes the architect’s work in a constructive way, and opens the door to a real energetic performance for nowadays’s building, a performance loaded with sense.
KEY WORDS: energy expert, thermic, humanism.
The co-owners facing the challenge of the energy transition.
Among the potential sources of energy savings, the building is one of the easiest areas to act on. However, in the French private condominium housing sector, the results are not up to the levels of the tremendous efforts of the public authority: a cocktail of massive subsidies and “Grenelle“ constraints, inefficient by lack of ”condo-compatibility”.
Our dual expertise of field practitioners and humanities and social sciences researchers leads us to identify the causes of this foreseeable failure and to suggest solutions.
In fact, prior to a building, a condominium is a societal phenomenon. This is an atypical structure in which the only link between the partners is the ownership of an apartment at the same address. Their situations and goals are very different. In this governance system where individual rights prevail over the collective ones, co-owners are supposed to decide investments together, while the investment concept does not exist in condominium accounting rules. The energy transition is therefore trapped as it requires major building works for which the return on investment cycle far exceeds that of the average duration of condos ownership. Condominiums suffer a structural inertia.
We attempt to analyze this situation in details and to present our researches aiming to boost the sector, facilitating collective decisions:
- A legal transition far beyond the first steps of the ALUR law
- A change in the co-owners behavior towards a common patrimony concept and its requirements, through giving relevant information understandable by every family of actors.
KEY WORDS: condominium, governance, patrimony, societal, condo-compatibility.