WORK AND PROFESSIONAL GROUPS
The industrialization of green building system: trades and emerging professional activities.
Transition towards a green economy led to a transformation of the organizational models of the production as well as of the traditional occupations. Sustainable technological innovation enriches the work of new meanings and new contents claiming for an adaptation of the workers’ skills and continuous changes in the knowledge and in the working practices.
In particular, processes facing the environmental issues led to some important changes: at one hand, a companies’ growing demand for specialized jobs with the need for a constant updating of the workers’ skills required; on the other hand, the need to cross the rigid thresholds of the technical-specialist boundaries to assume values and sensibilities of a more systemic and transversal character starting from the environmental one.
In the present paper we analyze the changing boundaries between “new” and “traditional” professions in the green-building with the aim to highlight the reconfiguring skills and tasks. We presents the main findings of a research project on the industrialized green-building system based on case-studies. The green-building led to a new relation between the factory and the construction site, craftsmanship and industrial production, with an impact on all professional fields.
KEY WORDS: energy transition, green building, innovation, green jobs, sustainable development.
Construction professionals facing the energy efficiency challenge: knowledges, competences and practices’ recombining at stake.
Géraldine MOLINA (docteur en Géographie, Aménagement de l’espace – Urbanisme ; post-doctorante à École Centrale de Nantes /IRSTV CNRS 2488))
Marjorie MUSY (ENSA/CERMA ; École Centrale de Nantes/IRSTV).
The aim of our contribution is to explore the concrete production of the energy efficiency at the building’s scale. It crosses researches issues from sociology of energy, sociology of the professions and sociology of work. We propose to question how the professionals that contribute to a building construction concretely deal with the challenge of energy transition and try to integrate it in their professional practices. The renewal of knowledge logics and professional know-how, the learning dynamic are called into question: which are the problems, the bolts they have to cope with? Which resources do they mobilize to make their competences progress and to combine this new strong requirement with the other challenges induced by the production of buildings? How the energy performance injunction contributes to restructure professional territories (professions that are traditionally present, arrival of new actors, etc.)? Which interprofessional dynamics (as competition and co-operation) can be observed between these actors? How the point of view of the inhabitants, their lifestyles and their energy uses are integrated by construction professionals that take part in the buildings’ production and management.
We’ll try to bring some answers by presenting some results of an exploratory investigation conducted in France over a panel of “innovating”, “pionniers”, “exemplary” professionals in energy performance (it means identified as such by their fellow-members and the other professionals with whom they work) and who belong to various links of the chain of the actors that intervene in buildings’ production and management (project ownership, architects, project management, tradesmen, maintenance technicians, etc). The analysis of their trajectories and individual approaches, their reflexive returns on their production, and their positioning strategies will be put in perspective with the results of other recent investigations conducted with “ordinary” professionals. At the end, the analysis will try to deliver a comprehensive knowledge of working situations and effective pressures, to identify the pionniers’ features and the factors that can facilitate the evolution of professional competences so that they can integrate the lifestyle’s concern in the their work applied to energy performance.
KEY WORDS: work situations, interprofessional dynamics, professional unease, multicriterion approach, resources.
Dependence, independence and interdependence: a socio-agronomic approach of the commitment of organic farmers in the energy transition.
The development of organic farming appears in numerous forecast scenarios as a key factor of the energy transition because of the non-use of chemical fertilizers, but also with regard to the evolution of the relations between farming, nature and society which it can lead to. Such a transition supposes the evolution of the practices of the farmers and more generally of the actors of the agri-food systems. However, the conditions and the processes of such changes are little studied while this knowledge is required to design public policies.
This exploratory study aims a better understanding of the evolution of the farmers’ practices concerning energy management in organic farming systems: how happens the change and for which reasons? Multiple trajectories and a diversity of reasons lead to the conversion to organic farming. It can be just an adjustment of the production practices or it can be lived as a radical change in the activity, the job or the lifestyle of the farmer. What about the management of energy in a context of increasing order of energy transition?
The study aims to analyze the multiple justifications of famers’ practices regarding energy management and the diversity of trajectories and factors of the evolution of these practices. It aims also to characterize the tensions and the complementarities between the farmers’ commitments both in organic farming and in energy transition. Twenty deep interviews were led with organic farmers localized in Vallée de la Drôme/ Biovallée, concerning their personal motivations, the systems of practices within the farm and their evolutions, the relations with the sectors and the territory.
The analysis of the results is in progress. The objective of this paper is to discuss the interest and the relevance of the notions of dependence, independence and interdependence to better understand the processes and the conditions of the evolution of agricultural practices on energy. This key for reading allows to explore the articulations between spaces and scales of energy management by the farmers. It allows to understand the way the farmers perceive the energy stake in a set of other stakes, among which those economic, identical, ecological. It also allows to analyze the practices and perceptions of the farmers on energy through the wider prism of the evolution of the relationships between farming, society and environment.
KEY WORDS: energy, organic farming, perception, practice, autonomy.